Special Issue on Metalloids in Plant Biology: New Avenues in their Research
• 大类 : 工程技术 - 1区
• 小类 : 工程：环境 - 2区
• 小类 : 环境科学 - 1区
The elements possessing physicochemical properties intermediate to metals and non-metals are known as metalloids. Silicon (Si), boron (B), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), germanium (Ge), tellurium (Te), etc. fall under this category. Metalloids are being used in many applications including semiconductor devices, ceramics, solar batteries, and certain polymers.Metalloids have enormous importance in agriculture,assome of them like B and Siare plant nutrient elements. B is for example known to be an essential micronutrient.However, Si is considered as a quasi-essential element because of its beneficial role under certain stress conditions. In contrast, metalloids like As, Ge, Sb, etc. are hazardous to plants and also impose a high risk tohuman health. Ashas now become a major threat for human health over a larger area in SouthAsia, particularly in Bangladesh and India. As a consecuenque of the anthropogenic activities, the area affected with As is increasing at alarming rate.The biogeochemical imbalances and mining activities are among the major reasons for increased metalloid concentrations in the soils and water bodies. Hazardous metalloids tend to affect the plant growth, metabolism, development and overall productivity due to the excess formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
In plants, beneficial metalloids like Si and B, and hazardous metalloid like As, get accumulated with the involvementof same genes. For instance,OsLsi1is a rice silicon channelalso mediating the entry of As. Therefore, genetic improvement of crops for theselectivity towards specific elements becomes more challenging.A significant advancement in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the uptake of B and Si has been achievedover the past couple of decades. However, a very limited information is available about the uptake of hazardous metalloidsin plants and their interactions with other cellular structures and signalling pathways. The plant resistance against hazardous metalloids was found to differamong species. In addition, genetic variation within the sameplant species hasalso been reported. This provides an opportunity to understand genetic regulations of metalloid accumulation in plants. The primary focus with respect tometalloid resistance is being given tohyperaccumulators, since they provide a remarkable system to investigate resistances because of their uniquephysiology. The physiologicalbasis of metalloid resistance can be examined with molecular evaluation of the transport system, identification of candidate genesand understanding of complex network of metalloid-ion chelators and subcellular compartmentation.
The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together high quality Original Research, Reviews and Short Communication highlighting thesignificant role of metalloids in plants. Contributions should focus on the mechanisms of metalloid transport, the physiological and biochemical implications,where endless significant contributions can be made and can be of huge interest with respect to future research prospects.Hence, this Special Issue will also focus on the following aspects:
Metalloids and the regulation of plant development
Metalloids and ionomic dynamics
Relation of metalloids with major exogenous/endogenous secondary messangers like NO, H2S, H2O2, etc. and the acquisition of their tolerance
The impact of beneficial metalloids on the mitigation of plant stresses