Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging for targeted brain networks interrogation
• 大类 : 医学 - 2区
• 小类 : 神经成像 - 1区
• 小类 : 神经科学 - 2区
• 小类 : 核医学 - 2区
Brain stimulation is a rapidly evolving field which offers unique opportunities to interrogate and modulate the function of the targeted brain circuits. The brain stimulation toolbox spans a wide range of techniques which either use a transcranial or an implanted source for stimulation. Some brain stimulation techniques such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or deep brain stimulation (DBS) are well-established therapies. Others, like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct/alternating current stimulation (TDCS/TACS) are mainly used as experimental tools in cognitive or systems neuroscience, with some successful therapeutic applications. In addition, novel stimulation methods such as transcranial ultrasound simulation (TUS) are emerging and the existing stimulation techniques continue to be refined.
Each stimulation method offers unique opportunities for a causal interrogation of the stimulated brain circuit. The interventional nature of brain stimulation gives a “causal” twist to human brain mapping. Studies that have combined brain stimulation with brain mapping have demonstrated stimulation-induced alterations of targeted brain networks across all scales, ranging from changes at the cellular, metabolic, and microstructural level to reorganization at the system level within and across functional brain networks.
Mapping the effects of brain stimulation on brain metabolism, function, and structure has proven to be a powerful approach, which has made major contributions to the mechanistic understanding of human brain function. But the benefit is reciprocal. Human brain mapping is of great value for brain stimulation too. By providing precise information about the individual brain network architecture, brain mapping can guide spatial and temporal aspects of brain stimulation, opening unprecedented possibilities of personalized brain circuit manipulation and therapy.
The goal of this special issue is to highlight recent progress in targeted interrogation of brain networks through invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation methods by using advanced neuroimaging techniques. The special issue focuses exclusively on those brain stimulation techniques that can induce neural activity themselves (DBS, VNS, TUS, TMS) rather than modifying intrinsic activity without directly eliciting potentials in the targeted brain issue (TACS, TDCS) because this was the main topic of a previous special issue.