In the recent years, natural products field have witnessed a tremendous progress. Perhaps, among the most notable example from the recent years is the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, awarded in 2015 to Prof. Tu for the artemisinin’s discovery. Nowadays, in excess of 25% of all medicines are derived either directly or indirectly from plants. Morphine and codeine (analgesic), paclitaxel (antineoplastic) and galanthamine (reversible cholinesterase inhibitor), besides artemisinin are good examples in this direction and amongst the best-selling drugs worldwide (Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2018, 122:203). This special issue attempts to give a light on the recent trends of application of plants (and their bioactive principles) with special emphasis on the toxicology aspects to be presented @ 4th International Conference on Natural Products Utilization: from Plants to Pharmacy Shelf (www.icnpu.com/2019).