Special Issue on Vulnerability Assessments as A Tool for The Coastal and Marine Hazards Management
• 大类 : 环境科学与生态学 - 4区
• 小类 : 海洋学 - 3区
• 小类 : 水资源 - 3区
This Special Issue of Ocean & Coastal Management Journal is in response to the high number of manuscripts on the general topic of Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVIs), and the exponential growth in related papers in the literature. This special issue is to provide a focal point for some of these related current studies, and, in part, to seek a commonality in nomenclature and application, particularly in regard to Coastal Management.
The first step in the design of any adaptation plans to coastal hazards is determined by the study of the relationships existing between coastal and marine environmental transformations the forcing agents, both natural and man-made, and the associated risk or vulnerability determination.Currently, many procedures are used for the determination of coastal hazards, associated vulnerability and sensitivity of coastal environments, and associated risks. All of these can be categorized according to different aspects, but the establishment of a concise classification is still a challenge.
Identification of hazards, coastal vulnerability/sensitivity, and risk quantification for application to coastal management requires dynamic, multidisciplinary and interactive approachs to understand and respond to any ocean and coastal processes to prevent or mitigate environmental, economic and social losses. Management to achieve preservation or conservation of natural habitats should be of highest priority.
The previously described approach begins with the identification of natural events perceived as potential hazards by determining the cause(s) and understanding the underlying processes. Typically, evaluating the risks form such hazards leads to the development of defining/evaluating/quantifying coastal vulnerability; generally expressed as Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVIs). CVIs and various types of risk maps then provide guides for planning, preparation/decision making in terms of coastal regulation and management. CVIs should guide appropriate responses, consider the time frame of expected results, and include monitoring to determine whether or not the solution is working. Hence the described routine is one aspect of overall ocean and coastal management, and usually follows the objective of an informed involvement and cooperation of all stakeholders to assess the societal goals in a given marine and coastal area, and to take actions to meet specific objectives.
The process should seek to balance environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational goals over the long-term time span; all within limits set by the natural dynamics of an area. Many times, the determination of hazard and coastal vulnerability and associated intents of risk mitigations have not been successful for a variety of reasons, including quick fixes sought in response to emergency events, or misdirected plans based on cost/benefit analysis, or merely placing sole emphasis on protecting buildings and infrastructures without concern for other coastal aspects (e.g. ecosystems, heritage). Such short-term protective (or reactive) actions have increased the effects of natural processes or shifted them to new points of attack. Such alterations cause the loss of natural habitats and their associated economic drivers, and the increase of vulnerability of human activities, i.e., increasing the associated risk.
Increasingly, ocean and coastal areas are facing hazards requiring adequate management strategies. Any management strategy must provide the optimal alternative to address the detected hazards at different levels. This Special Issue introduces works related to approaches used in the determination of coastal hazards, vulnerability and risk management in order to:
- Identify the natural underlying processes that create hazards when human activities transgress these natural areas (e.g., waves, currents, storm surge, overwash, sea-level rise, loss of natural protection such as reefs, mangroves, etc.)
- Identify hazards, assess risk, and define zones of coastal vulnerability to the hazards.